Thursday, January 31, 2008

Another Sydney Government Grab for New England money

I see from the the Sydney Morning Herald that the Sydney Government has launched another attempt to grab control of local money.

The funds in this case are levies raised by local councils on developers to help fund supporting infrastructure and services.

The government argues that these levies have become a break on development. I can understand the argument here. However, the Sydney Government also wants the NSW Treasury to take over control of the funds. In this event, it becomes just another $500 million to fund Sydney Government needs independent of local requirements.

Tuesday, January 29, 2008

Bush Erotica

Photo: Gordon Smith, Stretch

Now Gordon Smith, the publisher of a great New England photo blog, marked by the Australian National Library's Pandora Service as suitable for permanent preservation, ran this photo under the title Stre-e-e-e-etch!

I looked at it and looked at it. Then I realised I was looking at it the wrong way round. The tree is standing on its head. Now see what I mean?

Sunday, January 27, 2008

New England Tablelands achieves GI wine status

Back in August 2006 I looked briefly at the early history of wine growing on the New England Tablelands and Slopes. From early beginnings, grape and wine production grew rapidly only then to vanish, re-emerging in recent years. Now in the next stage of the industry's development, the Tablelands and immediate slopes have achieved GI status under the "New England Australia" label.

GI, short for Geographical Indications, is the official system by which Australia's different wine regions are recognised and protected. According to the Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation, the area's unque set of climatic conditions and similarities of topography, soil types and climate have earned the region its new status.

At 27,000 kilometres, the new region is one of Australia's largest and is presently home to 42 vineyards. The area's diverse conditions makes for considerable variety.


According to the Inverell Times, local industy associations are planning an official regional launch at Armidale on 15 February, with a gala event at Parliament House in Sydney later in the year.

Thursday, January 24, 2008

January 08 floods lead to major Richmond River fish kill

Photo: Some of the huge number of fish that died following recent major flooding on the Richmond River.

My thanks to Tom from live from the northside for a post drawing my attention to a major fish kill on the Richmond River. I had heard mention on the radio, but Tom's post reminded me that I should say something.

This was not the first such event, nor have they been limited to the Richmond.

The NSW Department of Primary Industry records that a major fish kill occurred in early February 2001 following major flooding in the upper reaches of the Richmond River catchment. Fish kills were also recorded at this time in tributaries of the Tweed and Brunswick Rivers. Subsequent flooding in March 2001 resulted in a major fish kill in the Macleay River and minor fish kills in the Clarence River.

The Department states that the cause of the fish kills was extremely low dissolved oxygen levels in the rivers. This most likely resulted from the death of pasture grasses inundated by floods which removes oxygen from the water and the rapid drainage of this floodplain water into the river. Also, sediments from acid sulphate soil floodplains were also a likely contributor of low dissolved oxygen in the water. Key sources of this low oxygen to the system were all areas that were formerly important fish habitats, wetlands that had been extensively drained and floodgated.

As a response to the major fish kills, NSW Fisheries closed the Richmond River and near shore areas to all forms of fishing, for three weeks initially and then extended this closure a further three months. A closure to all forms of fishing was placed on the Macleay River for 3 months on 20 March 2001.

The fish kill and river closures had adverse effects on local communities, especially at Ballina and South-West Rocks. These impacts, particularly lost revenue from cancelled visits by tourists, affected bait and tackle stores in particular and other businesses such as motels, caravan parks, service stations, seafood outlets, Fishermen's Co-operatives, boat-hire and maintenance businesses. Despite the economic impact on the community, the river closures received widespread industry and community support.

The closures to fishing in the rivers were modified following consultation with the Recovery Committees, analysis of scientific data and community input that occurred after a general call for submissions. The total closures were replaced with less restrictive recreational and commercial fishing closures on the Richmond and Macleay Rivers. These included daylight fishing hours only, restricted total bag limits and limits on the available fishing area. These new restrictions lasted for a period of 3 months in both rivers.

The partial river closures were lifted on 28 September 2001, following positive results from the scientific surveys, allowing for the resumption of normal commercial and recreational fishing.

Those who are interested can find the full report on the earlier incident by following the link.

This time the floods do not appear to have affected the other rivers, but the effect on the Richmond has been very severe, with an estimated 33 tonnes removed by Council from the worst affected area near Ballina. Fishing has again been banned from the river for a period of three months.

Last year there was a story on the ABC about the work of an individual farmer who had been experimenting with new types of farming practices to try to overcome the problem. For the life of me, I cannot remember the details. I will try to find the story, for it was quite inspiring.

Sunday, January 20, 2008

Did you board at St John's Hostel Armidale?

THIS photograph is of boarders at St Johns Hostel, Armidale taken in 1937.

Back row: F R Allen (Warden), W (Bill) Peters, - McGlauchlan, I Thompson, H Conway, R (Bob) McLean, R (Bob) Jack, J S Keogh, B (Barry) Cook, K (Ken) Bowman, C (Colvin) Churches, D (David) Marr, - Morrison, L (Laurie) Barnes, B (Bruce) McKenzie, - McRae, S (Stauby) Baker Third row: D Spencer, J B Ivor, Bruce-Smith, W (Wal) Sabine, - Godfrey, J (Jim) Munro, D Hall, J (Canary) Woodhouse, H (Harry) Freame, I (Ian) Ferris, R Crawford, J (Jack) Thompson, C (Charlie) Sourri, J (Jim) Morrison, D Ferris, C (Chicka) Henderson. Second row: E (Edward) King, M (Max) Virtue, A (Austin) Kimball, B (Basil) Virtue, K (Ken) Wall, J (John) Millett, F Kerr, - Roper, Canon Dickens, Matron, Dr Drummond, R (Bob) Gray, R L Waugh, R (Ross) Clark, P (Peter) Capel, W (Wal) Samuels, R (Rex) Hobden, - McGee. Front row: R (Ron) Green, M (Malcolm) Hawke, I A (Ian) Clarke, A (Allan) Gray, J (John) Hays, A G Thomas, N (Norm) Melick, D Hays, J Rolands, A J Jameson, D Dowe, J E (Jas) Barnes, A R Keohan, C R (Clinga) Gibson, R (Ron) Gray.

My thanks to Gordon Smith for drawing my attention to this story in the Armidale Express.

I have not had time to check my facts, so I am relying on memory.

Around 1898 St John's College was established in Armidale to train priests for the Anglican Church. A new building was built for the College not far from the Bishops' private residence on the southern edge of Armidale. In the 1920s, the College was shifted to Morpeth in the Hunter Valley.

Following the College's move, St John's became a boarding hostel for boys attending Armidale High School. The hostel closed as the need for boarding declined. Today, St John's has become the prep school for the adjoining New England Girls' School.

Ian Clarke was a boarder at St John's in the 1930s. The Armidale Express records his reminiscences:

"St Johns was next door to NEGS on the road south out of town.

Although impossible, one wonders, how many of these boys are still with us. Many came from surrounding districts such as Uralla, Walcha, Inverell, Glen Innes, Guyra, Bendemeer, Bundarra and as far away as Grafton. All attended Armidale High School.

From a failing memory I recall that Cleave (Clinga) Gibson, Bruce McKenzie and McRae came from Walcha and Uralla. Ross Clark from Bendemeer, Ken Bowden Bundarra and Harry Freame Kentucky.

Harry’s father was a secret service agent in World War 1. Basil, Max Virtue and Jim Munro were from Inverell and R L Waugh possibly from Guyra. Wal Sabine, Ivor – Bruce – Smith and myself, Ian Clarke were from Grafton and travelled up through Nymboida and Tyringham in the large touring coaches operated by Woodward and Purkiss.

And that is as far as I can make my brain reveal.

As for myself, I spent 44 years in the banking profession interrupted by four and a half years service in the second AIF.

Now heading for 84 years and married to a wonderful woman for over 60 years I am the proud father of four, grandfather of eight and great grandfather of six.

Would it not be a wonderful thing if some others could be found."

Friday, January 18, 2008

New England University Offers Out

New England's universities today released their first round offers of places to students under the centralised admission process. The benchmark here is the student's score on the UAI index, ranking students on a score out of 100 based on their Higher School Certificate (HSC) results.

Students have to nominate course choices at various institutions, and then gain admission if their UAI score is higher than that set by the institution for the course in question. In turn, this is dictated by relative demand for certain courses.

This is not the only admission process.

The University of New England, for example, has an alternative schools based admission process that allows students to gain admission in advance of the formal HSC results. This has become of increasing importance in recent years. Further, some courses have quite specific entry requirements independent of the HSC.

Looking at the UAI cut-offs, Southern Cross University has a UAI range from 60 to 90, the University of Newcastle from 60 to 93.6, the University of New England from 70 to 95.

All the universities have some course vacancies after first round offers, so there will be a significant second round once student choices from the first round are known.

Tuesday, January 15, 2008

Experience a slice of the drover's life - Boggabri

Photo: Boggabri main street

If you fancy a slice of a drover‘s life for just a few days, then head for the north western New England town of Boggabri (and here, here) this April.

The third annual Drover’s Campfire Weekend happens at the Boggabri Showground from April 25 to April 28.

Anyone with a caravan, motorhome, camper trailer, ute, tent or even just a swag is welcome to join in this weekend of classic country activities.

Hosted by the Boggabri Lions Club, the weekend includes: local tours of the district, delicious, economical camp oven meals (no more than $12), campfire sing-a-longs with entertainment, market stalls, shearing demonstrations, bush poetry, whip cracking and a community church service.

Boggabri cattle farmer and seasoned caravanner Geoff Eather initiated the weekend in 2006 in an effort to promote the town to travellers, particularly the caravanning community.

The inaugural event attracted around 100 people from around NSW. Last year over 300 people attended and even greater numbers are expected this year.

“I just saw it as a way to get people to stop in town, have a look around and share the experience of caravanning with others,” Mr Eather said.

“Thanks to the generous community support from Lions Club members, the concept is proving very successful.“

Entertainers this year include Rex Baldwin from Gunnedah and renowned Melbourne bush poet, Jim Brown. On Saturday night everyone’s invited to “Dress Up As A Drover”.

Mr Eather said the local tours (weather permitting) will include a visit to a cotton gin and coal mine and the visitors should have some fun with some of the events planned.

“We also want to remind people that if it rains it will be a little muddy underfoot – that is part of a drover’s life, after all,” he said.


Fees for the weekend are $5 for unpowered sites and $12 for powered which are reserved for those with medical issues. Power, showers, toilets, access to water and dump point available. Generators welcome, RV retailers welcome. Book early to avoid disappointment.

Boggabri is located on the Kamilaroi Highway halfway between Gunnedah and Narrabri in New England's North West.

Registration forms are available from the web site or from The Boggabri Lions Club. Contact: Geoff Eather (02) 6743 4469. Email: Web:

Friday, January 11, 2008

Maclean's 104th Highland Games

Photo: Highland Dancers, Maclean

Browsing around, I was fascinated to discover that Maclean will be holding its 104th Highland games over the weekend of 21 and 22 March 2008.

New England has a strong Scottish connection. One stream of settlers came from the highlands via the Hunter to the Clarence Valley. For a period there was even a gaelic newspaper.

A second, wealthier, stream came to take up land on the New England Tablelands with a special concentration around Glen Innes, another centre proud of its Scottish connections.

Monday, January 07, 2008

More UNE Passings - death of Jo Woolmington

Photo; Jo Woolmington, Mary White College, 1979

I was browsing around looking for information on the current floods in the North when I cam across some sad news, the death of Jo Woolimington (23-4-1927 to 6-12-2007 ).

The material that follows is largely drawn from John Farrell's obituary in the Armidale Express (27 December 2007). However, I have added my personal recollections to flesh the story out. You see, Jo spans many of the things that I have been talking about on this and other blogs.

Born Jean Clara Cox at Essex, England, on April 23, 1927, Jo was a daughter of working class parents, Edward and Rose Cox, and a sister of Avis, Fred, Patsy and Celia.

Her secondary schooling was at Paddington and Maida Vale High School in London during World War II, when Jo experienced first hand the Blitz and other war time conditions, including rationing.

Possessing a strong social conscience, John records that Jo was greatly influenced by her robust Christianity which urged believers to go beyond personal moral reform to promoting social reform, and she was a prominent advocate for social justice while qualifying as a teacher at Whitelands College, London.

She graduated in 1947, and the following year married Eric Richard Woolmington, a geographer. As I remember Jo's stories, it was a whirlwind romance that essentially took place over one weekend!

In 1949 .the couple emigrated to Australia where Jo taught in Sydney at Abbotsleigh and Ascham. In 1956, Eric accepted a lecturing position in the Geography Department at the University of New England and the family moved to Armidale where Jo became an active member of the community.

She was active in the Armidale Association for the Assimilation of Aborigines and with the UNE Women’s Association which acted on their concerns about the social and economic conditions and discrimination experienced by Aboriginal people.

With like-minded people Jo was active in promoting education, employment, health and housing for Aborigines in Armidale.

She also used her dramatic talents, being a co-founder of the University Players which would produce two major productions each year in the Armidale Town Hall. Her production of East Lynn was the first to use the stage machinery at the UNE Arts Theatre. I also think that she was active first in the Armidale Theatre Club.

I must have met Jo soon after they arrived in Armidale, because she became friendly with my mother and used to drop in at home for coffee. I thought her a nice person, although I knew Eric better. At that point Jo was very much a compatriot of my mother's in my mind.

John Farrell notes that Jo enrolled at UNE, studying English in 1963 and History in 1964, while simultaneously teaching at NEGS from 1964 to 1967.

Now I think that John's dates are not quite right here, for Jo did History I with me in 1963. One of our first if not the first assignments was to prepare a summary of some work by Gordon Childe on prehistory - Jo did hers in poetry!

From then on I had a lot to do with Jo as she switched from Mum's to my friend. This was an interesting period to be at UNE in general, almost a golden time in the History Department.

The Department was very strong indeed. Mick Williams was one Professor, Russell Ward a second. Among others, Ted Tapp was pursuing his thoughts on the philosophy of history, Len Turner on military history, while Isabel McBryde had begun her pioneering work on the Australian Aborigines.

As a part time student with a family and a job, Jo could not join in all the things that we full time students did, including spending much time at our table in the Union arguing religion, politics, life and society. But she was there a fair bit of the time.

In 1965 Jo offered her house for seminars for the third year history honours group. There in the back room with its open fire, we held our seminars on the American Revolution, often side-tracking into other topics. In 1966 we all did honours together. Somewhere I have a photo of our table at the 1967 Graduation Ball, including Jo.

I mentioned that at first I knew Eric better.

On Sunday 23 February 1958, the Belshaw Block at UNE burnt down. Poor Eric. His PhD thesis was due to be submitted the following day. All copies were stored in the Belshaw Block and all were lost.

He started again. His new topic was an examination of the geographical scope of support for the New England New State Movement. This was finally finished in 1963 and the degree awarded.

In 1961 I did geography honours for the Leaving Certificate, getting into the top group in the state. As part of this, I had to do a local study. Eric helped me here. But as a strong New England New Stater, I was also interested in his geographic analysis of the movement.

Eric's central thesis was that New England was a marchland area, an area of economic competition between Sydney and Brisbane. Using a variety of techniques, he attempted to measure the natural economic boundary and then compared this to the actual boundary. The natural economic boundary lay far to the south of the actual boundat. He suggested that this area of overlap, contested territory, represented the natural heart of the movement.

He then looked at a whole variety of measurements to test movement support, relating this to his original thesis. In doing so, he painted a very accurate picture of the voting patterns that were to happen four years later in the 1967 New State Plebescite.

Eric's thinking was very influential on my own work.

In my 1966 honours thesis on the economic basis of Aboriginal life in Northern NSW. I used his model to postulate that the Northern Tablelands were a marchland area between the powerful and expanding Kamilaroi to the west and the strong Northern Coast tribes.

Later, his work formed an integral element in my own analysis of New Engalnd history. It remains powerful today when I look at the economic fragmentation and decline of Northern New South Wales, despite its apparent natural advantages.

Eric was not a new state supporter. He thought the dream unachievable, some of the logic flawed. But as he said in 1967, nobody in their right mind should vote no because it was the only thing that forced Governments to consider New England interests in any integrated way. I fear that he was right.

At the time that I am writing about, Erica and Jo's marriage was breaking up and Eric would leave Armidale, dieing in 1995.

In 1968 Jo successfully applied for appointment as tutor in the History Department. By then, I was living in Canberra. However, on most of my regular visits back to Armidale I took time to visit her, sometimes meeting with others like Brian Harrison. In fact, the last time I saw Brian was at Jo's house.

In 1972 Jo took up an active role in the Women’s Electoral Lobby. I remember this well, because I ran for Country Party pre-selection for Armidale in that year. Jo therefore interviewed me in my new role as pre-selection candidate.

I actually supported WEL, but I also knew that Jo's support for the Labor Party verged on the theological.

After talking for a bit, I said: "Jo, no matter what I say in answer to your questions, am I right in thinking it doesn't matter so far as your vote is concerned?" She laughed and said "James, I think that's right." We proceeded on that basis.

In 1973 Jo became acting principal of Mary White College at UNE , and was the principal from 1978 to 1982. Here I came in contact with her again while back in Armidale as a postgraduate student.

Jo's sensitivity to the Aboriginal cause, and its ambivalent relationship with Christianity, focused her research for two decades on the Aboriginal situation and the state of religion in the first half of the 19th century.

In 1973 Jo published a book of collected documents, Aborigines in Colonial Society, 1788-1850, still an excellent resource for anyone studying in the field. Her PhD thesis, ‘Early Christian Missions to the Australian Aborigine: a study in failure’ was completed in 1979.

In 1985 Jo was appointed a lecturer, then senior lecturer. She tells her own story up to 1987 in a chapter in a book titled The New England Experience, edited by Margaret Ann Franklin.

Jo joined with Dr Bruce Mitchell in 1988 – the bicentennial of white settlement in Australia – to present the first course on the history of Aborigines and their interaction with whites.

In this last period I was back in Armidale yet again, this time running a consulting business. Busy with business and family, I saw far far less of her than I had in the past.

After retiring from UNE Jo remained in Armidale. The last time I saw her was by accident in the main street on a fleeting trip.

She is survived by her two children, Jonathan and Nicola, as well as some members of her own family. I will remember her.


Gordon Smith kindly sent me a link to the obit on Jo on the UNE site. This presents the same picture, but provides more information on her role in Mary White College.

Sunday, January 06, 2008

Welcome to Visitor 10,000

Well, this blog has finally cracked the 10,000 visitor mark. The visitor in question, a Victorian big pond user, came direct, so has been here before. Welcome!

Friday, January 04, 2008

UNE Passings - deaths of Dr David Evans, Professor Rod Gerber

Photo: Dr David Evans, 1979

Browsing the UNE web site I realised that I had missed the deaths of two people who will be well known to different UNE generations. The material that follows is largely drawn from the UNE web site.

David Evans who died on 21 September 2007 will be well known to UNE students from the 1950s through to the 1990s. He was certainly a familiar figure to me as both an undergraduate and later postgraduate student, although I did not do English.

Born in Goulburn in 1937, he came to UNE as an undergraduate in 1954 – the year the University obtained its autonomy from the University of Sydney.

He went on to gain a UNE Arts degree with First Class Honours in English, and then a Diploma of Education from Armidale Teachers' College, finishing Dux of the Teachers' College in 1959.

After several years of teaching at Maitland Boys' High School he joined the staff of UNE's English Department and quickly rose to the level of Senior Lecturer, gaining his PhD from UNE in 1967. His passion for Early English literature took him to the UK for several periods of sabbatical study, while, back in the UNE lecture room, he was able to share that passion – particularly his love of Chaucer – with his students, becoming life-long friends with many of them.

Typical of his engagement with the University and Armidale communities was his voluntarily-assumed role as mentor and friend of Indonesian students and their families. Starting from a desire to alleviate the difficulties of living within an unfamiliar culture, this role led him to become fluent in Indonesian and to spend his evenings at the residential colleges helping Indonesian and other overseas students with their written work. He is remembered as having transformed the lives of these students and their families over two generations.

UNE's continuing reputation as a welcoming place for students from other cultures and countries rests on the continuing work of people like David.

Always a believer in the value of strong social networks within the University community, he was, as a student, a founding (non-residential) member of Wright College, UNE's original residential college, and was appointed a Non-resident Fellow of Earle Page College in 1968.

Even as a schoolboy David had drawn and painted. He developed this talent in adulthood, producing an impressive body of work that includes paintings and drawings in a variety of styles and with a wide range of subject-matter, as well as illuminated manuscripts inspired by medieval art.

Over four years in the 1980s he worked on what is perhaps his artistic masterpiece – a hand-written and illustrated text of the Old English epic Beowulf. That unique book is on display – along with many other works of his – in the Uralla gallery ("Chaucer on Bridge Street") that he opened in 2000 and managed until his death on the 21st of September 2007.

His belief in the vital role of art in the community led him to become a driving force behind the establishment of the New England Regional Art Museum (NERAM) in Armidale. As well as his vision and enthusiasm, he lent his creative talents to the project: for example, by donating the proceeds from the sale of one of his published books of poems to the NERAM fund.

David Evans is survived by his wife Helen, their three children Michael, Peter and Jenny, and three grandchildren.

Photo: From left, Catherine and Michelle Gerber with UNE's Acting Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic Services), Eve Woodberry. The portrait of Professor Gerber by Don Gentle shown in the photo is to hang in a meeting room on the top floor of UNE's Education Building to be officially named "The Rod Gerber Meeting Room".

Rod Gerber, the distinguished geographer, teacher, and academic administrator died on 22 August 2007.

Professor Gerber was Dean of the Faculty of Education, Health and Professional Studies at UNE from 1995 to 2002. His colleagues and students remember him as a leader who was at once inspiring and compassionate – a "people person" whose generosity of spirit informed his work as both mentor and administrator.

He was recognised internationally as a leader in the field of geography education, and had more than 200 publications (including books, journal articles and reports) to his credit. However, in the words of Associate Professor John Lidstone from Queensland University of Technology, perhaps his greatest achievements were in "his support and help for others to achieve great things". "The academic world is often a hard one in which to maintain a cool head – much less a sense of compassion," Dr Lidstone said, "but Rod built a solid reputation around the world for being considerate and supportive of others."

At UNE, Professor Gerber was heavily involved in financial management, staff development, research leadership through the development of research centres, academic leadership of a wide range of undergraduate and postgraduate courses, community development projects, international partnerships, and international professional organisation leadership.

He also managed the Oorala Aboriginal Centre and the UNE Heritage Centre, and was a leader in international partnerships that successfully delivered UNE courses in Vietnam, Hong Kong, Canada, the United States, China, New Zealand, Tonga, Fiji and Indonesia. Professor Gerber's work helps explain why UNE continues to rank in the top group of Australian Universities for indigenous access.

The adjectives "generous" and "inspiring" are common to many of the tributes to Rod Gerber that former colleagues and students have penned since his death. One of these characterises him as "a person who turned loose networks of people into small families". Another speaks of his "unfailingly encouraging words". And another reads: "Rod will always be remembered as a dear friend and co-researcher, knowledgeable but humble, and able to work closely to produce results."

Rod Gerber is survived by his wife Michelle and their children Andrew, Elizabeth and Catherine. Michelle Gerber, with her daughter Catherine, have donated a portrait of Professor Gerber by local artist Don Gentle to the University, and made an endowment that will allow the University to honour her husband's name by the annual provision of a scholarship – the "Rod Gerber Memorial Scholarship for a Higher Degree Research Student in the Faculty of The Professions".

The portrait of Professor Gerber is to hang in a meeting room on the top floor of UNE's Education Building to be officially named "The Rod Gerber Meeting Room" at an opening ceremony on Monday 18 February 2008. Rod Gerber's son Andrew, and UNE VC Professor Alan Pettigrew, will speak at this event.

Wednesday, January 02, 2008

History of the Newcastle Stock Exchange

Founded in 1937 as a rival to the Sydney Stock Exchange, the Newcastle Stock Exchange (NSX) became the home exchange up to 300 companies.

Many of these were local and regional businesses that went on to become significant Australian companies, including Brambles Industries Limited, Coal and Allied Industries Ltd, NBN Ltd, New Redhead Estate and Coal Company Ltd, Newcastle Gas Company Ltd and Steggles Holdings Ltd.

Changing economic structures caused the NSX to go into decline. Bigger companies migrated to the Sydney Stock Exchange, with few coming behind.

I am not sure when the old NSX ceased to operate, although I suspect that it may have been in the 1980s. This period saw the disappearance of many locally owned businesses through acquisition.

The Stock Exchange was reactivated as a new entity in 2000 to fill a perceived gap for small and medium size companies that simply could not afford the costs and onerous requirements of listing on the Australian Stock Exchange.

On 21st December 2006 NSX changed its name to National Stock Exchange of Australia Limited to provide a national platform for a variety of regional markets.

The NSX aims to be the premier market for small to medium, prominent regional businesses and sub exchanges like the NSX Bendigo Stock Exchange and NSX Wollongong Exchange.